SYSCALL—Fast System Call
||Fast call to privilege level 0 system procedures.
Instruction Operand Encoding
SYSCALL invokes an OS system-call handler at privilege level 0. It does so by loading RIP from the IA32_LSTAR MSR (after saving the address of the instruction following SYSCALL into RCX). (The WRMSR instruction ensures that the IA32_LSTAR MSR always contain a canonical address.)
SYSCALL also saves RFLAGS into R11 and then masks RFLAGS using the IA32_FMASK MSR (MSR address C0000084H); specifically, the processor clears in RFLAGS every bit corresponding to a bit that is set in the IA32_FMASK MSR.
SYSCALL loads the CS and SS selectors with values derived from bits 47:32 of the IA32_STAR MSR. However, the CS and SS descriptor caches are not loaded from the descriptors (in GDT or LDT) referenced by those selectors. Instead, the descriptor caches are loaded with fixed values. See the Operation section for details. It is the responsibility of OS software to ensure that the descriptors (in GDT or LDT) referenced by those selector values correspond to the fixed values loaded into the descriptor caches; the SYSCALL instruction does not ensure this correspondence.
The SYSCALL instruction does not save the stack pointer (RSP). If the OS system-call handler will change the stack pointer, it is the responsibility of software to save the previous value of the stack pointer. This might be done prior to executing SYSCALL, with software restoring the stack pointer with the instruction following SYSCALL (which will be executed after SYSRET). Alternatively, the OS system-call handler may save the stack pointer and restore it before executing SYSRET.
IF (CS.L ≠ 1 ) or (IA32_EFER.LMA ≠ 1) or (IA32_EFER.SCE ≠ 1)
(* Not in 64-Bit Mode or SYSCALL/SYSRET not enabled in IA32_EFER *)
RCX ← RIP;
RIP ← IA32_LSTAR;
R11 ← RFLAGS;
RFLAGS ← RFLAGS AND NOT(IA32_FMASK);
CS.Selector ← IA32_STAR[47:32] AND FFFCH (* Operating system provides CS; RPL forced to 0 *)
(* Set rest of CS to a fixed value *)
CS.Base ← 0;
CS.Limit ← FFFFFH;
CS.Type ← 11;
CS.S ← 1;
CS.DPL ← 0;
CS.P ← 1;
CS.L ← 1;
CS.D ← 0;
CS.G ← 1;
CPL ← 0;
SS.Selector ← IA32_STAR[47:32] + 8;
(* Set rest of SS to a fixed value *)
SS.Base ← 0;
SS.Limit ← FFFFFH;
SS.Type ← 3;
SS.S ← 1;
SS.DPL ← 0;
SS.P ← 1;
SS.B ← 1;
SS.G ← 1;
Protected Mode Exceptions
||The SYSCALL instruction is not recognized in protected mode.
Real-Address Mode Exceptions
||The SYSCALL instruction is not recognized in real-address mode.
Virtual-8086 Mode Exceptions
||The SYSCALL instruction is not recognized in virtual-8086 mode.
Compatibility Mode Exceptions
||The SYSCALL instruction is not recognized in compatibility mode.
64-Bit Mode Exceptions
||If IA32_EFER.SCE = 0. If the LOCK prefix is used.